Downstream Activities: Project Development, Distribution, Installation
Downstream activities consist of distribution (wholesale) and physical installation.
There is a large number of wholesalers, most of whom do not operate at globally. Some wholesalers have exclusive rights to distribute a specific module make in certain countries. But by and large, there are few distinguishing features.
Small installations for residential rooftop applications are implemented by local installers and electricians directly. Module manufacturers and distributors often maintain lists of certified installers nationawide. Tthis is a very fragemented segment of the value chain with very few companies that operate at national level, let alone globally.
Big projects undergo various stages of development even before construction can begin. Generally, this is a high-margin segment with some companies that are operating globally.
Project DevelopmentThis phase consists of
FinancingDue to high capital requirements for solar power generation, few large projects are financed by the sponsor's balance sheet. Instead, tailor-made financing is achieved through project finance.
Design & EngineeringEvery site has its own specific characteristics including geographic location and solar radiation level, site topography, local regulations and requirements for grid connectivity. During the Design & Engineering phase, the optimal structure and choice of components will be determined, based on all input factors. This is largely following the sizing process described here.
Construction & CommissioningThe physical construction phase ends with the act of commissioning when the facility is handed over to the operator, which is in most instances a different organisation. To achieve this, most sponsors will ask for independent check by independent certification companies such as SGS.
Operation & MaintenanceOperation & Maintenance includes activities such as facility monitoring, cleaning solar glass, breakdown management, repair work and warranty management.
DecommissioningAfter 20 - 25 years, the system will have to be decommissioned and recycled where possible.
|Name||Country||Comments||Market Cap in € millions|
|Forward integrated Module manufacturers|
|Alfasolar||Germany||Produces own modules, also sells Trinasolar and others||€ 7.50|
|AzurSolar||Germany||Manufacturer of monocrystalline modules (14.2%) and polycrystalline modules (14.1%). Also distributes Platinum inverters and other componenets and offers turnkey solutions.|
|CentroSolar Group AG||Germany||Multi-crystalline cells with efficiency of more than 16%. But not integrated into modules. Sells branded modules and other products.||€ 66.00|
|Conergy||Germany||Conergy has abandoned bioenergy and solar thermal to just focus on photovoltaics in attempt to turn around operations. Fully integrated from modules to projects.||€ 238.00|
|GeckoVoltaik Systems GmbH||Germany||Sells own modules,||€ 6.00|
|German Solar AG||Germany||Sells systems and system solutions with branded inverters and modules from another subsidiary of parent company - Jumao Photonics|
|Soleos Solar GmbH||Germany||Soleos manufactures polycrystalline modules. As a wholesaler it distributes its own modules, as well as thin-film modules from NexPower, monocrystalline modules from Suntech and inverters from Kaco as well as its own mounting systems.|
|Besco GmbH||Germany||Besco offers the full range of products for solar systems, many of which can be customized.|
|Blitzstrom GmbH||Germany||Wholesale of photovoltaic components and complete systems|
|Blue Group||Germany||Wholesale of modules and system integration|
|Environment Energy GmbH||Germany||E-Energy is a distributor of mono- and poly-crystalline modules from Asia.|
|Euris GmbH||Germany||Distributor of equipment|
|Gahelios||Spain||Gahelios sells PV modules and delivers turnkey projects.|
|Gehrlicher Solar AG||Germany||Gehrlicher sells all components - modules, inverters, cables etc.|
|GET GmbH||Germany||PV wholesaler|
|jms Solar||Germany||Solar Wholesaler|
|Latitude Solar||Sweden||Using Q-cells products exclusively|
|ModulTeq Ltd||Germany||Wholesale of modules and mounting systems.|
|PVXchange||Germany||PVXchange is an online market channel for PV-modules. It provides a business-to-business solution for both buy- and sell-side. Credit risk can be mitigated via an escrow service, which is offered as an add-on.|
|Solar Century||UK||Solar Century is one of the leading solar companies in the UK. It is a wholesaler of PV components and systems. It also provides services for large projects.||€ 21.00|
|Turnkey Solutions Providers and Project Developers|
|Belectric||Germany||Belectric is one of the largest project developers / EPCs in the world. Belectric has developed a standardized 2MW solar power plant block (including modules, layout, choice of inverter and wiring). Larger power plants are implemented by building multiples of those 2MW block. This way the performance factor of the plant can be guaranteed at the outset.|
|abakus Solar AG||Germany||PV Full-Line provider|
|Abengoa Solar||Spain||Active in all technology segments:
Solar Tower PS10 in Sevialla (11MW)
Low & high concentration tracker CPV, Sevilla
Trough CST - Solana 280MW to be built in Phoenix, AZ
|City Solar AG||Germany||Construction of solar farms|
|Colexon Energy AG||Germany||Colexon offers turnkey project implementation. Also broker roof- leases.||€ 25.58|
|Ecoware SPA||Italy||Builds and installs utility scale solar plants|
|EDP Renovaveis SA||Spain||Developer and operator of renewable assets: 5GW installed, mostly wind||€ 6,111.00|
|Energiebau Solarstromsysteme GmbH||Germany||Supply and plan systems for rural electrification around the world|
|Energiequelle||Germany||Project Developer, mostly focused on Wind|
|juwi solar GmbH||Germany||Leases roof-space, operates systems, develops parks and supplies systems|
|Lahmeyer International||Germany||Energy consulting group (active also in transport) undertaking assessments, planning, engineering and implementation of renewable energy projects.|
|Phoenix Solar AG||Germany||Phoenix plans, builds and operates solar plants.||€ 264.00|
|Q-Cells Systems||Germany||This is Q-Cells's project development division. Note that Q-Cells does not manufacture crystalline modules. Hence, Q-Cells Systems buys modules from other parties.|
|Recurrent Energy||USA||Recurrent energy develops and operates solar power plants.|
|Renerco||Germany||Project development, turnkey implementations and financing.||€ 44.00|
|Renewable Energy Systems Ltd||UK||Develop both PV and CST projects||€ 453.00|
|Scatec||Norway||Has subsidiary in the US|
|SES 21 AG||Germany||SES21 offers all downstream activities from wholesale to project development.|
|Siemens||Netherlands||Inverters, bipv and turnkey projects|
|Social Energy||Spain||Current projects in Spain and Eastern Europe|
|Solar Integrated Technologies||Germany||Focus on commercial buildings||€ 8.00|
|Solar Technologies||UK||Solar Technologies specialises in buildling integrated photovoltaics (BIPV).|
|Solar Ventures||Italy||Solar Ventures are focused on Italy. Plans to add 50MW in 2009|
|SunEdison||USA||One of the global renewable energy project developers with large customer base.|